This well-documented coupling between moist convection and column humidity within the MJO fundamentally owes to the effects of entrainment on ascending moist-convective clouds. The composite evolution of SST and fluxes is qualitatively similar during the October period, though with more limited diurnal variations, likely owing to larger mean wind speed Figs. Echo-top frequency is calculated from the above-described subset of echo features by counting the total occurrences of echo top at each vertical level as a function of time and normalizing this result by the total number of grid bins in the horizontal plane. The character of this organization relates to the relative magnitudes of shear-driven and buoyancy-driven turbulence, though it fundamentally owes to heating from below by the warm ocean surface. Precipitation P 0 , shown in Fig. Jones, : Potential predictability of the Madden—Julian oscillation. The relationship between variables is more clearly depicted in Fig.
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